lesson 5

Morphology

Seventy or more different forms are available in Rohingya. A hyphen (-) between letters is to be removed, it is used for initial understanding only — how the word is formed.

Command

  1. lek =write (sg.) Tui yián ehón lek. You write this right now.
  2. lek-ó =write (pl.) Tuñí yián ehón lekó. You write this right now.
  3. lek-á =cause to write Tui/Tuñí John ór áta leká/lekó. You ask John to write.
  4. lek-í-de =help to write Tui/Tuñí ibáre lekíde/lekído. You help John in writing.

Present

  1. lek-í =write (I) Añí hámicá gór ot lekí. I always write at home.
  2. lek-ó =write (II) Tuñí hámicá gór ot lekó. You always write at home.
  3. lek-ó-s =write (IIa) Tui hámicá gór ot lekós. You always write at home.
  4. lek-é =write (III) Tará hámicá gór ot leké. They always write at home.

Continuous

  1. lek-í-r =writing (I) Añí ciñçí ekkán lekír. I am writing a letter now.
  2. lek-ó-or =writing (II) Tuñí/Tui ciñçí ekkán lekóor. You are writing a letter now.
  3. lek-é-r =writing (III) Tará ciñçí ekkán lekér. They are writing a letter now.

Perfect

  1. lek-í-féla-iyi =have written (I) Añí ciñçí lekífélaiyi. I have written a letter.
  2. lek-í-féla-iyo =have written (II) Tuñí ciñçí lekífélaiyo. You have written a letter.
  3. lek-í-féla-iyo-s =have written (IIa) Tui ciñçí lekífélaiyos. You have written a letter.
  4. lek-í-féla-iye =has/have written (III) Tará ciñçí lekífélaiye. They have written a letter.

Past

  1. leik-kí =wrote (I) Añí ciñçí ekkán leikkí. I wrote a letter.
  2. leik-kó =wrote (II) Tuñí ciñçí ekkán leikkó. You wrote a letter.
  3. leik-kó-s =wrote (IIa) Tui ciñçí ekkán leikkós. You wrote a letter.
  4. leik-ké =wrote (III) Tará ciñçí ekkán leikké. They wrote a letter.

Future

  1. lek-í-youm =will write (I) Añí ciñçí ekkán lekíyoum. I will write a letter.
  2. lek-í-ba =will write (II) Tuñí ciñçí ekkán lekíba. You will write a letter.
  3. lek-í-bi =will write (IIa) Tui ciñçí ekkán lekkíbi. You will write a letter.
  4. lek-í-bou =will write (III) Tará ciñçí ekkán lekíbou. They will write a letter.

Alternative

  1. leik-kyóum =will write (I) Añí ciñçí ekkán leikkyóum. I will write a letter.
  2. leik-bá =will write (II) Tuñí ciñçí ekkán leikbá. You will write a letter.
  3. leik-bí =will write (IIa) Tui ciñçí ekkán leikbí. You will write a letter.
  4. leik-bóu =will write (III) Tará ciñçí ekkán leikbóu. They will write a letter.

Passive

  1. lek-á-giye =(passive I, II, III) Ciñçí ekkán lekágiyé. A letter is/was written.

Possibility

  1. lek-á-za =being writable Ciñçí yián leká za. This letter is writable.
  2. lek-á-za-ibou =being writable in future Ciñçí yián leká zaibou. This letter will be writable.
  3. lek-á-di-ya-za =can be made writable Ciñçí yián lekádiyaza. This letter can be made writable.

Noun

  1. lek-á =writing Leká yián bicí cúndor. This writing is very beautiful.
  2. lek-ó-on =act of writing Email beggún óttu lekóon saá. All should write emails.
  3. lek-ó-ya =person who writes Ahmed bála lekóya. Ahmed is a good writer.
  4. lek-ó-ni =thing used to write Añártu honó lekóni ciz nái. I do not have anything to write with.
  5. lek-á-ni =tool used to write Añártu honó lekáni boudh nái. I do not have any writing board.
  6. lek-á-lekí =activities to write Tuáñrár bútore lekáleki tákoon saá. There should be writing between you.

Adjective

  1. lek-é-de =thing used for writing Añártu honó lekéde ciz nái. I do not have any writable thing.
  2. leik-kyá =of written Kitab ibá fura leikká. This book is fully written.
  3. leik-kyé-dé=of that written Añártu honó leikkyéde juab nái. I do not have any written answer.

Adverb

  1. lek-í lek-í =by writing & writing/while writing Ite gór ottu lekí lekí aiyér. He is coming from home while writing.

Immediate present

  1. lek-í-lam =acted to write (I) Añí habos sán lekílam. I write the letter.
  2. lek-í-la =acted to write (II) Tuñí habos sán lekíla. You write the letter.
  3. lek-í-li =acted to write (II) Tui habos sán lekíli. You write the letter.
  4. lek-í-lou =acted to write (III) Tará habos sán lekílou. They write the letter.

Alternative

  1. leik-lám =acted to write (I) Añí habos sán lekílam. I write the letter.
  2. leik-lá =acted to write (II) Tuñí habos sán lekíla. You write the letter.
  3. leik-lí =acted to write (II) Tui habos sán lekíli. You write the letter.
  4. leik-lou =acted to write (III) Tará habos sán lekílou. They write the letter.

Long past

  1. leik-kí-lam =had written (I) Añí habos sán leikkílam. I had written this paper long ago.
  2. leik-kí-la =had written (II) Tuñí habos sán leikkíla. You had written this paper long ago.
  3. leik-kí-li =had written (II) Tui habos sán leikkíli. You had written this paper long ago.
  4. leik-kí-l =had written (III) Tará habos sán leikkíl. They had written this paper long ago.

Remote future

  1. lek-í-youm éri =will write later (I) Añí habos sán lekíyoum éri. I will write the paper sometime later.
  2. lek-í-ba ri =will write later (II) Tuñí habos sán lekíba ri. You will write the paper sometime later.
  3. lek-í-bi ri =will write later (IIa) Tui habos sán lekíbi ri. You write the paper sometime later.
  4. lek-í-bou ri =will write later (III) Tará habos sán lekíbou ri. They will write the paper sometime later.

Conditional

  1. lek-í-tam =would have written (I) Añí email lán lekítam. I would have written the email.
  2. lek-í-ta =would have written (II) Tuñí email lán lekíta i. You would have written the email.
  3. lek-í-ti =would have written (IIa) Tui email lán lekíti. You would have written the email.
  4. lek-í-tou =would have written (III) Tará email lán lekítou. They would have written the email.

Alternative

  1. leik-tám =would have written (I) Añí email lán leiktám. I would have written the email.
  2. leik-tá =would have written (II) Tuñí email lán leiktá. You would have written the email.
  3. leik-tí =would have written (IIa) Tui email lán leiktí. You would have written the email.
  4. leik-tóu =would have written (III) Tará email lán leiktóu. They would have written the email.

Request/allow

  1. lek-ó-na =please write Meérbanigorí lekóna. Please write the letter.
  2. lek-ó-goi =allowed to write Tuñí lekó gói. Let you write.

Alternative

  1. lek-se-ná =please write Meérbanigorí leksená. Please write the letter.
  2. lek-gói =allowed to write Tui lek gói. Let you write.

If

  1. lek-í-le =if (I/II/III) person write Tuñí lekíle gom óibou. It will be good if you write.