Lesson 3

Pronouns

Number

Person

Gender

Pronouns

Possessive
adjectives

Subject

Object

Possessive

Reflexive

Singular

1st

m/f (I)

añí, mui

añáre, moré

añár, mor

añínize, muinize

añár, mor

2nd

m/f (you)

tuñí
tui
oñne

tuáñre
toré
oñnoré

tuáñr
tor
oñnor

tuñínize
tuinize
oñnenize

tuáñr
tor
oñnor

3rd

m (he)

ite *
te *
uite **
íte **

itaré
taré
uitaré
ítare

itar
tar
uitar
ítar

itenize
tenize
uitenize
ítenize

itar
tar
uitar
ítar

m/f (he/she)

ibá *
uibá **
íba **

ibáre
uibáre
íbare

ibár
uibár
íbar

ibánize
uibánize
íbanize

ibár
uibár
íbar

n (it)

yián
ibá
yían **
íba **

yiánóre
ibáre
yíanóre
íbare

yiánór
ibár
yíanór
íbar

yiánnize
ibánize
yíannize
íbanize

yiánór
ibár
yíanór
íbar

Plural

1st

m/f (we)

añára

añáráre

añárar

añáránize

añárar

2nd

m/f (you)

tuáñra

tuáñráre

tuáñrar

tuáñránize

tuáñrar

3rd

m/f (they)

itará *
tará *
uitará **
ítara **

itaráre
taráre
uitaráre
ítarare

itarár
tarár
uitarár
ítarar

itaránize
taránize
uitaránize
ítaranize

itarár
tarár
uitarár
ítarar

n (they)

iín *
íin **
uún
úun **
uuín **

iínóre
íinóre
uúnóre
úunóre
uuínóre

iínór
íinór
uúnór
úunór
uuínór

iínnize
íinnize
uúnnize
úunnize
uuínnize

iínór
íinór
uúnór
úunór
uuínór

Gender: m=male, f=female, n=neuter., *=the person or object is near., **=the person or object is far.

Definite articles

1. If a noun ends with a vowel then the article is either an or wa if singular, or un or in if plural or uncountable.
Usually wa is used for round-fatty objects, and an for flat-thin objects.

singular

plural

Kéti án

(the farm)

Kéti ún/ín

(the farms)

Fothú án

(the photo)

Fothú ún/ín

(the photo)

Fata wá

(the leaf)

Fata ún/ín

(the leaves)

Boro wá

(the large tree)

Boro ún/ín

(the large trees)

   

Lou ún/ín

(the blood)

2. If a noun ends with a consonant then the article is the end-consonant plus án or wá for singular or ún or ín for plural.

Debal lán

(the wall)

Debal lún/lín

(the walls)

Mes sán

(the table)

Mes sún/sín

(the tables)

Kitap pwá

(the book)

Kitap pún/pín

(the books)

Manúic cwá

(the man)

Manúic cún/cín

(the men)

3. If a noun ends with r, then the article is g plus án or wá for singular or ún or ín for plural.
gún is used for human and gín for non-human.

Tar gán

(the wire)

Tar gún/gín

(the wires)

Duar gán

(the door)

Duar gún/gín

(the doors)

Kuñir gwá

(the dog)

Kuñir gún/gín

(the dogs)

Faár gwá

(the mountain)

Faár gún/gín

(the mountains)

Indefinite articles

Indefinite articles can be used either before or after the noun. Uggwá usually is used for roll/round/fatty shaped objects and ekkán is for thin/flat shaped objects.

singular

plural

Uggwá fata

(a leaf)

Hodún fata

(some leaves)

Ekkán fothú

(a picture)

Hodún Fothú

(some pictures)

-or-

-or-

Fata uggwá

(a leaf)

Fata hodún

(some leaves)

Fothú ekkán

(a picture)

Fothú hodún

(some pictures)